Serbian Psychiatric Hospital. Photo taken by George Georgiou who
worked in Kosovo and Serbia between 1999 and 2002.
Female patients receiving Radium Therapy, early 20th century.
A chair used to restrain hysterical patients.
An insane asylum patient restrained by warders, Yorkshire, 1869,
A patient undergoing lateral cerebral diathermia treatment in
the early 1920's. Diathermia used a galvanized current to jolt
psychosis sufferers. Doctors eventually deemed it unsafe and
Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA insane asylum, 1870's.
A chronic schizophrenic patient stands in a catatonic position.
He maintained this uncomfortable position for hours.
The Pilgram Psychiatric Center in Long Island, NY, USA could
house as many as 14,000 patients at a time. This self-sufficient
mental asylum adopted extremely aggressive methods of "curing
the insane". Lobotomies and electric shock therapy were the
norm. The doctors at this asylum started using large doses of
insulin and metrozol to drive patients into a violent coma, just
to be rid of them.
Pilgrim State Hospital Brentwood NY, USA 1940s.
Philadelphia State Hospital at Byberry. Man in restraints, B,
violent ward. 1945.
Mechanical slapping massage device at BC sanitarium.
Norwich State Hospital, Connecticut, USA.
A mother who has tuberculosis, and is on strict bed rest, leaves
her room at the sanatorium for a Sunday walk with her family....
but she does not leave her bed.
Drawn by a paranoid schizophrenic patient.
Cuenca, Spain, 1961 Insane asylum.
Sections of brain encased in wax. West Park Mental Hospital
Washington, D.C., circa 1921. "Foundling Hospital, playroom."
Tots at the Washington Asylum for 'Foundlings'.
Self-harm in 1964.
Patients in steam cabinets in 1910.
An x-ray of needles driven into the flesh by a self-harming
An abandoned asylum in Limbiate, Italy.
In the late 19th century it was a widely held belief that
masturbation caused insanity and devices such as this were
designed to prevent the wearer from touching or stimulating
himself. They were often used in mental institutions.
An insanity mask from the 17th century.
Hydrotherapy first used in the early 1900s, Immersion in a tub
of water to make a patient relax when agitated or relieve some
ailment, lasted a few hours to overnight. 1936.
Sometime in the 1800's.
Sunland Asylum...Dr. Freeman, the quack who invented lobotomies.
The procedure turned most 'problem' patients into zombies.
Patient in restraint chair at the West Riding Lunatic Asylum,
Wakefield, Yorkshire ca. 1869.